Migraines are a recurring type of headache. They cause moderate to severe pain that is throbbing or pulsing, often on one side of your head. Other symptoms may include nausea, weakness, or sensitivity to light and sound.
There are a number of factors that can trigger a migraine, including stress; anxiety; hormonal changes; bright or flashing lights; loud noises; strong smells; medicines; too much or not enough sleep; sudden changes in weather or environment; overexertion; tobacco; caffeine or caffeine withdrawal; skipped meals; overusing migraine medications; and certain foods and food additives.
There are several things you can do to feel better, including resting with your eyes closed in a quiet, darkened room; placing a cool cloth or ice pack on your forehead; and drinking fluids.
There are some lifestyle changes you can make to prevent migraines. Stress management strategies, such as exercise and relaxation techniques, can be helpful. Make a log of what seems to trigger your migraines to help you learn what you should or shouldn’t do, such as avoiding certain foods and medicines, maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, or eating regular meals.
If you are obese, losing weight may also be helpful. If you have frequent or severe migraines, you may need to take medicines to prevent further attacks.